The body is only triggered to build muscles when it's given a reason to. Doing an exercise and taking it to the point where you're muscles are burning isn't a good enough reason for your body to take note and stimulate muscle building. Most people never take it to this point and stop the set but to build muscle you have to take it further.
Try this next time you're working out. Take the set to where you're muscles are burning and aching really bad and do 2-3 more reps! This way the body takes note of the increase and says to itself, I NEED TO CHANGE. You can't do more than 2 or 3 sets when you take an exercise to this point so make sure not to do more sets.